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The science which deals with the occurrence, distribution and circulation of water is called

hydrology. The study of hydrology is useful for the following :

1. For the proper design and operation of hydraulic structures.

2. For ascertaining flood flows expected at a spillway or highway culvert or in a city drainage


3. For ascertaining reservoir capacity to ensure adequate water for irrigation or municipal

water supply during draughts.

4. For ascertaining the effect of reservoirs, levees, and other control works in flood flow in a


Notes: (a) The science which deals with the physical features and conditions of water on the earth surface is

called hydrography.

(b) The science which deals with the measurement of water is called hydrometry.

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